A arte mulçumana explode na cidade imperial de Toledo

Mercado Mudejar de Toledo

Desde a época romana, Toletum, vila fortificada,mostrava presença desde os altos penhascos graníticos,magníficas elevações junto ao rio.O Tajes,rio de maior extensão na Espanha, era vassalo da nobre senhora.Com a queda do Império Romano, os visigodos estabelecem ali o seu domínio,mas dissenções internas facilitam o ataque e a ocupação dos exércitos árabes vindos da África A conquista da Hispânia começa, Al-Andaluz será realidade por séculos.

Não há união entre os reinos critãos,a ocupação pelo mulçumano Tarik, nos anos 771/12 foi tranquila.Mas a maioria cristã sempre resiste aos novos senhores, apesar de aceitar os novos costumes, as leis e a cultura do invasor.

Afonso VI de Castela, em 1085 , recupera o bastião e inicia a recuperação dos territórios perdidos . Toledo será a sede do novo reino.

Desde o século VIII até o XV , a cultura árabe se impregna nas terras da Hispânia. Tanto na arquitetura , quanto nas letras, na metalurgia e no artesanato. Surge a arte e a cultura mudejar. A influência vai aparecer nas decorações, nas esculturas, nos entalhes e trabalhos na madeira , na elaboração dos apliques no gesso e nos trabalhos no ferro e nos metais nobres.

Artesões e artífices árabes , com apoio de colegas cri stãos e judeus ,em harmonia complexa, mas produtiva , criam algo diferente na península ibérica .Desenvolvem o que encontramos nos mercados , nas lojas especializadas ,no artesanato, mas principalmente nas fachadas dos prédios e mesmo nos seus interiores . Há que pesquisar.

A Catedral de Toledo, iniciada em 1226, edificada sobre antiga igreja visigoda e de mesquita sucessora , é o primeiro passo. Construção em pedra , é uma das maiores do mundo. Atenção aos detalhes escondidos nas colunas, nas abóbodas ,nos ladrilhos, nos apliques de gesso, nas sacristias , nas passagens e corredores ; a influência mudejar está sempre presente.

Circulando pela cidade , excursão a pé, ela aparece nas igrejas, nos hospitais e nos prédios administrativos e palácios. Púlpitos ( Igreja de Santiago de Arrabal), torres ( Igreja de São Tomé), portadas ( Convento Madre de Deus), arcos ( Capela Corpus Cristo).

Mas na metalurgia aparece o fundamental. Desde o século V , antes de Cristo, a cidade já era famosa pelas suas forjas e trabalhos no ferro. Suas espadas e escudos foram usadas por Aníbal e depois os romanos fabricavam aqui as suas espadas curtas, os temíveis gládios, armamento essencial as suas legiões.

Com os árabes a arte e a ciência é aperfeiçoada , a expressão “ aço de Toledo” é padrão para as armas brancas e armaduras.

Na visita ao atelier de artesão, o trabalho do damasquinado , a arte de incrustar finos fios de ouro ou de prata em relevos de ferro ou de aço ,produz maravilhas em medalhões, em anéis, em joias , em armaduras e espadas. A exposição é magnífica. Pratos, painéis decorativos, despertam curiosidade e atração. A cunhagem de moedas, de condecorações e medalhões comemorativos tem aqui a sua expressão máxima. O problema é o transporte daquela espada ou de uma faca no avião.

Filipe II , ao transferir a capital, para Madrid em 1561, decreta a lenta decadência. Mesmo com importância episcopal , com os concílios da Igreja, com as pinturas de El Greco, os séculos de abandono pesaram. Só agora, a Espanha redescobre as obras de El Greco e a arte mudejar. Os visitantes procuram as filigranas estampadas nas armaduras, nas espadas e nas joias. Conjuntos especiais , tamanho normal, podem ser adquiridos para decoração de palácios, para hotéis ou por colecionadores fanáticos. Os entes normais ficam com as miniaturas.

Para conhecer melhor a cidade , fuja dos roteiros tradicionais, enfrente a incerteza das ruelas , as lombas inclinadas , procure as minúcias escondidas ,logo depois da esquina em frente. Olhe para o alto , para as torres , para os mínimos detalhes das capelas, muitos escondidos entre pedras centenárias. Os sinos darão as boas vindas , orgulhosos do seu papel.

Depois, para recuperar energias experimente a iguaria local, o guisado de carne de porco magro, com tomates e picantes – a carcamuse-, ou, dependendo da época, a perdiz recheada. Ponto alto na arte culinária dos cozinheiros locais. A sopa de alho abre a batalha. O vinho de Toledo ,pouco conhecido, merece consideração, pode ser a surpresa antes do nosso retorno para Madrid. O trem rápido nos aguarda.

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