Dubrovnik, A Cidade dos Carvalhos

Dubrovnik

Dubrovnik — A pérola do Adriático

Nosso primeiro contato foi pela televisão. Assisti ao bombardeio por ar, mar e terra efetuado em 1991 pelas forças servias e montenegrinas. Com o esfacelamento da Yugoslávia, as antigas repúblicas procuravam autonomia. Começava a tragédia.

Foi amor a primeira vista. No sul da Croácia, encontramos a maior, a mais conservada fortaleza medieval do Adriático e mesmo da Europa. Cidade portuária, com a vinda de refugiados em 614 d.C. escapando de Cavtat, antiga colônia romana destruída pelo ataque de povos eslavos, começou a expansão.

Com o nome de Ragusa era cidade livre, ativa no comércio marítimo, até o poder de Veneza, em 1205, sobrepujá-la.

Com o apoio de Bizâncio, foram erguidos os primeiros muros, necessários na defesa contra ataques dos turcos otomanos que pilhavam a região.

Com clima ameno, mediterrâneo, as laranjeiras em flor aparecem. Os carvalhos, ”dubrova” em croata, talvez tenham originado o nome da cidade.

Dentro das muralhas, protetoras do porto, as igrejas mostram a influência de Bizâncio. Os croatas, no entanto, são católicos romanos. As pinturas, os murais como devoção à Nossa Senhora e a Jesus Cristo, magníficas pelas cores, prescindem à ida aos museus; a visita é gratuita.

Tenha tempo para apreciar as pinturas; as cores que surgem nos antigos quadros dos pintores locais são inesquecíveis.

Durante o cerco dos sérvios, mais de dois mil projeteis e bombas atingiram a cidade fortaleza, todos os telhados sofreram avarias. A dificuldade posterior foi a fabricação de telhas com as características e as dimensões das originais.

Com poucas armas, jovens suportaram e venceram o assédio. Mesmo após as tréguas e a independência, ainda ocorreram ataques. A Sérvia nunca desistia. O interessante, hoje, após as restaurações das fortificações, no modelo típico do século XV, é circular pelo perímetro das muralhas, passeando por torres e ameias, por passadios que alcançam mais de 25 metros.

Do alto visualizamos as ruas estreitas, igrejas, palácios, fontes e telhados em cores surpreendentes.

O lado do mar, junto ao porto, apresenta detalhes que destacam o azul das águas contra as rochas da fortaleza.

A noite, com iluminação artificial as pedras das muralhas ganham vida e cotam histórias desde os romanos, turcos, bizantinos, venezianos, de Napoleão e mesmo do Império Austro Húngaro. Hoje, o turismo floresce novamente e todas as línguas são ouvidas em Dubrovnik.

É interessante a visita a Sinagoga de Zidovski. Escondida numa ruela, protegida por residência junto ao primeiro piso, sobreviveu a mais de 200 anos de perseguições. O museu anexo apresenta uma coleção de objetos do culto judaíco que vale a pena apreciar. Foi Napoleão quem concedeu, pela primeira vez, liberdade política e religiosa à comunidade.

O tesouro da Catedral é imponente e no monastério franciscano do século XIV a exposição de quadros é imperdível

As fortificações da fortaleza recordam Carcassone, na França, apenas aquelas são do século XIII, onde a madeira predominava.

Passeios de barco, passando pelas ilhas de Lausa e Ragusa, nos levam a mergulhos azuis e até mesmo à antiga cidade de Cavtat, hoje, um simples porto onde se aprecia o excelente vinho branco de Mendek. Ali moças em roupas típicas, coloridas, dançam para os turistas.

Ferrys ligam Dubrovnik, às ilhas próximas, a Split e até Bari na Itália.

Ponte moderna, magnífica, permite descortinar o novo porto, onde navios de cruzeiro despejam centenas de turistas. Ao longe, no bairro de Lakud, hotéis de luxo oferecem o conforto e o prazer de paisagens exclusivas: surgem ilhas verdes, parques naturais, velas coloridas, além dos barcos dos pescadores. Dubrovnik nos envolve, cativa e convida a retornar.

A culinária é simples, predominam sopas de fungos, guisados, peixes e pratos da cozinha italiana. É só escolher o vinho local, eles surpreendem.

Felipe Daiello

Autor de “Palavras ao Vento”

Editora AGE

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973 respostas para “Dubrovnik, A Cidade dos Carvalhos”

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