El Greco e sua Toledo

Cidade Medieval, fortaleza erguida em penhasco à beira do Tajo, rio que muda seu nome ao adentrar Portugal, para Tejo, Toledo está ligada ao gênio de El Greco.

Nascido em Creta, Doméniko Theotokópoulos , no início dedicou-se aos ícones bizantinos, mais tarde, em Veneza , absorve o estilo de Ticiano e de Tintoreto. Prepara-se para futura glória. Antes de deslocar-se para Toledo,,em Roma , conhece e estuda as obras e as técnicas de Miguel Ângelo.

A antiga Cidade Imperial , abandonada por Filipe II em favor de Madri, acolhe e prestigia o pintor até a sua morte em 1614. Personagens esguios, cores sombrias recordando fantasmas , aparecem em estilo próprio , inconfundível . Seus quadros são apreciados em quase todas as igrejas e palácios da cidade. Filipe II , um dos seus mecenas, encomenda para o Pálacio Escorial a pintura retratando o Martírio de San Maurício, tela de muitas controversias.

Outra técnica de Doméniko surge nos retábulos das igrejas e nos altares principais. Pelo prestígio crescente , não tem problemas financeiros. Pessoas importantes, notáveis cardeais e mesmo papas encomendam os seus retratos. Em todos os museus do mundo ,nas catedrais, quadros do pintor , do mestre do escuro e das sombras, ganham exposição em destaque . Em alguns é a única obra para olhar e admirar.. No Museu Thyssen de Madri apreciamos o tema da Anunciação em cores bem mais claras e coloridas. Exceção?

No Museu Metropolitano de Arte, em Nova Iorque,,autorretrato apresenta figura de rosto alongado , barba triangular da época ,meio calvo .Observando com cuidado os seus trabalhos , encontramos as mesmas características nos personagens retratados. Coincidências?

Para verificar a autenticidade das suas pinturas , basta verificar a assinatura gravada. El Greco sempre colocava o nome original em grego, D.T..

Circulando por ruelas estreitas, aclives pesados, em busca das maravilhas pintadas pelo mestre, é momento de apreciar as belezas dessa cidade medieval. Suas muralhas dispostas como serpentes fugitivas, suas portas de entrada , decoradas e esculpidas nas pedras .As pontes ultrapassando o Tajo, as vistas obtidas das colinas próximas, o perfil da Catedral e do Alcazar. Fotos magníficas !

Na Semana Santa , procissão desfila hostensório gigante. Construído inicialmente com seis quilos de ouro dados por Cristovão Colombo à Rainha Izabel, depois agregado a mais de 160 quilos de prata dourada, representa trabalho excepcional dos ourives locais.

A capital religiosa da Espanha nos séculos XVI e XVII , época conturbada das reformas protestantes, tem muito para apresentar aos curiosos e turistas que chegam. Compreender El Greco e suas pinturas é fundamental para entender aqueles tempos. Suas obras se enquadram no espírito da contrarreforma

O Alcazar de Toledo , antigo palácio muçulmano, quase destruído durante o cerco das forças republicanas na Guerra Civil Espanhola, é outra obra que apresenta as raízes mouras de Toledo. A cultura moçárabe, influência de quase 400 anos de domínio infiel, produziu efeitos culturais permanentes. Mesmo com as restrições da Inquisição , antigos hábitos não pereceram. Missa seguindo o rito tradicional dos antigos cristãos, muitos falando o árabe , vestidos de modo igual, em ato solene é rezada nos domingos na Catedral. Necessário estar presente para sentir as vibrações desse local de orações, onde as pinturas de El Greco transmitem a sua mensagem e a sua fé.

No Monastério de São Domingos de Silos ele encontra o lugar do repouso final. O interessante , o pintor foi reconhecido e apreciado por artistas e escritores de todo o mundo ,bem antes dos seus compatriotas espanhóis.

Na sua biografia , teve um filho com mulher com quem não casou , mesmo assim legitimado , segue a carreira do pai como pintor.

Na sacristia da Catedral de Toledo entre notável coleção das suas obras , imperdível, como ponto alto temos a figura de Cristo .Na cena do despojamento das suas vestes , antes da cruzificação , surge com manto vibrante na cor vermelha. Algo fora do padrão de El Greco.

Na Igreja de São Tomé , entre obras magníficas , O Enterro do Conde Orgáz é tela para apreciar instante a instante ; momentos de reflexão sobre a paixão e os métodos do mestre.

Por toda Toledo , em residências , igrejas e mesmo hospitais encontramos obras do pintor. Pelo sucesso, pelo apoio de mecenas, sempre obtinha encomendas com valores ultrapassando os mil ducados. El Grego valorizava os seus trabalhos ; discussões sobre o preço eram comuns. O certo ,é que Domeniko teve boa vida em Toledo, a sua cidade.

A igreja católica apoiando a contrarreforma, tinha no pintor um dos seus suportes e defensor, Sua influência era tanta ,que encomendas vinham de longe.

Na Catedral de Malta , obra dos Cavaleiros da Cruz e mesmo no Mosteiro de Montserrat , na Catalunha, suas obras são referência para a visita.

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