Málaca. Porto na rota portuguesa para a China

Málaca.Porto na Rota Portuguesa para China e Japão

Málaca. Porto na rota portuguesa para China

O ano de 1511 marca a chegada das naves portuguesas. Porto e mercado estratégico na península da Malásia é tomado pela frota de Afonso de Albuquerque que partira da base de Goa. O Sultanado de Málaca não podia fazer frente aos novos conquistadores, já famosos na região como invencíveis guerreiros. Os comedores de pedras – pão-duro como alimento -e bebedores de sangue- vinho como bebida- traziam novas técnicas militares. Aproveitavam as guerras entre os vizinhos e potentados dos territórios, para, em aliança vencedora, obter favores comerciais e licenças para instalar depósitos e entrepostos. Fortalezas, muros defensivos são construídos para manter as posições, Em 1521, a Igreja da Nossa Senhora do Monte é edificada.

Em Lisboa, a conquista é comemorada, livros sobre a façanha são editados. O Império Português, sonho de gerações, é concretizado. Camões, nos Lusíadas , narra os perigos enfrentados pela brava gente, as lutas entre os Deuses favoráveis aos novos donos dos oceanos e os invejosos que enviavam monstros, e ventos contrários aos invasores dos seus domínios.

m 1526, nova expedição arrasa a cidade onde o último sultão ainda resiste. Portugal permanecerá como senhora até 1641, quando as forças armadas da Cia Neerlandesa das Índias Orientais tomam a praça forte, Depois da morte do Rei Don Sebastião, no Magreb, Portugal fará parte da Coroa Espanhola., dando argumentos para os inimigos de Castela e da Inquisição atacarem as suas possessões e colônias. Com os novos dominadores, os católicos serão perseguidos e humilhados. Cochin, Colombo caem nas mãos dos holandeses. Começa a decadência portuguesa.

A península de Seringor, grande produtora de óleo de palma, de copra, de cocos e de especiarias, em 1786, vê a chegada das belonaves com a flâmula da Cruz Vermelha de São Jorge, os ingleses permanecem no poder até a independência da Malásia em 1966.

Os britânicos após contrabando de sementes das seringueiras do Brasil, da sua aclimatação em Singapura, iniciam a plantação comercial das seringueiras na Malásia, Nova riqueza é agregada a economia da região,

As ruínas dos antigos fortes, as igrejas remanescentes, no modelo colonial lusitano, recordam os navegadores, os sodados, os comerciantes e os jesuítas na missão de conquista e de catequese.

São Francisco Xavier, nas missões de evangelização passa por Málaca nos anos de 1545/46/49. Às ordens de D, joão III procura manter os bons costumes entre os colonizadores. A distância , o clima quente, os costumes mais livres, levavam a luxúria e a perdição das almas, era necessário também conduzir os gentios para a nova fé,

Em 1577, os jesuítas publicam o primeiro livro usando os caracteres da linguagem tamil, um dos idiomas da Índia. Breve, dicionário traduz para o latim até e a escrita dos mandarins, Mateo Ricci, sacerdote jesuíta, sucessor do Apóstolo do Oriente, continua a missão. Funda uma universidade em Macau e depois alcança Beijing, onde alcança a posição de conselheiro do Imperador, Seu retrato, a estátua em Macau apresenta o religioso vestido com as roupas usuais dos mandarins.

Na rota, desde Goa até Macau e Nagasaki, Málaca era ponto de escala essencial. Razão da importância na sua conquista e manutenção, Bem antes dos portugueses, o almirante chinês Heng nas suas viagens até a África também aporta em Málaca. Numa das suas viagens transporta noiva imperial para casamento com sultão de Málaca. A maioria da comitiva permanece em Málaca, casando com personalidades da cidade.

Durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, os japoneses em busca de matérias primas, estanho e borracha, invadem a Malásia, A necessidade de ligar Burma até a Tailândia dá origem ao episódio da Ponte do Rio Kwai, A construção de estrada de ferro provoca a morte de 16.000 prisioneiros de guerra aliados e de cerca de 100.000 operários recrutados à força, principalmente de origem indiana. O filme de David Lean com Willian Holden e Alec Guiness retrata o drama da Khwae Noi. Reveja o filme para entender todo o drama.

De Kuala Lampur, capital da Malásia, são 148 km até Málaca e estaremos distantes 245 km até Singapura, cidades onde podemos chegar facilmente de avião. Málaca tem muito ainda para mostrar.

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