Vila de Tomar. Uma Sinagoga perdida no passsado

Vila de Tomar.Uma Sinagoga perdida no passado

Vila de Tomar. Sinagoga perdida nas terras dos templários

Por acaso, ela surge no roteiro de viagem. Íamos em busca da raízes da Ordem de Cristo ,em Portugal, no caminho para o Castelo Convento. Obra principal dos cavaleiros sucessores dos templários, organização extinta por bula papal , em 1312. Escondida na vila, ela sai do seu silêncio. Tinha muito para desabafar e recordar.

Protegida pelo Infante D. Henrique, membro da Ordem de Cristo , a comunidade judia , ali instalada , além do pequeno comércio, mantinha boas relações e tinha postos de trabalho junto ao palácio fortaleza .Cerca de 200 pessoas habitavam a judiaria. As portas do enclave eram cerradas ao poror do sol e reabertas pela manhã. Eram as regras impostas.

Pequena, seguindo arquitetura medieval, a sinagoga servia muito mais do que casa de orações tradicional. Era a sede da comunidade, o tribunal religioso e, mesmo, escola para ensinar e manter as tradições .Em Portugal , os judeus tinham certas liberdades de ação , concedidas por El-Rei.

Certos privilégios outorgados ; a justiça era ministrada seguindo as regras do Talmude. Só em casos especiais , para decisões superiores, a questão era levada ao rei. Dispondo de assessor para assuntos judaicos, o rabino mor, a justiça real tomava o seu curso.

Comparando com outros países da Europa, pois judeus tinham sido expulsos da Inglaterra e da França ,naqueles tempos; Portugal era relativo oásis .O relacionamento no século XV e início do XVI era razoável entre mouros, judeus e cristãos. A inquisição só vai surgir a partir de 1496 e, mesmo assim, mais branda , sem o rigor da vizinha Espanha.

Os atos de violência registrados estão mais associados às ações dos Guerreiros Cruzados , soldados vindos dos países do norte da Europa. Não faziam diferença nas ações bélicas, trucidavam os que encontravam pela frente. Todos eram infiéis. Os moçárabes , cristãos que haviam absorvido a cultura muçulmana,, adotando vestes e hábitos dos antigos conquistadores, eram passados pela espada; sem perdão. Os descendentes dos primitivos ocupante , não convertidos ao islã, usavam o árabe como meio de comunicação; mais de 600 palavras do idioma português são de origem árabe. Impossível escapar da aculturação.

A partir de 1492, milhares de judeus, refugiados da Espanha, procuram asilo e abrigo em Portugal. Problemas aparecem com as comunidades locais, os estrangeiros não aceitam as regras do compatriotas portugueses. Conflitos são inevitáveis.

Localizada no central da parte antiga de Tomar, perto da Igreja de São joão Batista em plena judiaria , próxima da Praça Central e do mercado, aos poucos será esquecida.

A maior parcela dos comerciantes da vila faz parte da Nação , são habitantes das casas no entorno. Com a chegada dos refugiados a população, ao redor de 200 almas , aumenta de 30 a 40 %. Outra razão dos atritos.

D. Manuel I ,com édito de cristianização forçada, em 1496, encerra as atividades da sinagoga. Depois de servir como templo católico , cai no abandono. A seguir funcionará como prisão, depois como depósito e posteriormente como palheiro e finalmente como hospedaria.

O prédio é adquirido , em 1923, por judeu polaco e transformado em museu luso hebraico. Livros, objetos de culto , lápides procedentes de antigos cemitérios , formam o acervo. Relíquias de antigas sinagogas aqui terão o devido renascimento. A sinagoga de Tomar , junto com o templo de Córdoba , na Espanha , são os únicos remanescentes, daquela época, na Península Ibérica. A porta de entrada é modesta, mas o interior segue o padrão arquitetônico das sinagogas sefaraditas do século XV. O teto em abóboda tem quatro colunas como suporte, as denominações recordam as quatro matriarcas : Sara ,Rebeca, Léa e Raquel. Nas paredes doze mísulas lembram as 12 tribos de Israel.

Abrahão Zacuto, célebre matemático, um dos personagens ligado às Epopeias dos Descobrimentos deu seu nome ao museu. Homenagem adequada ao cientista que criou as tábuas matemáticas, suporte essencial à navegação das primeiras caravelas. Portugal deve muito a esse pioneiro.

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